Women and Men in India 2022 report

Why in News?

  • Recently, the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation has published Women and Men in India 2022 report.

Findings of the Report-

  • Sex Ratio- The sex ratio at birth increased by three points to 907 in 2018-20 from 904 in 2017-19.
  • India’s sex ratio (females per 1,000 males) is expected to boost to 952 by 2036, up significantly from 943 in 2011.
  • Labour Force Participation- India’s Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) for those above 15 years of age has been on the rise since 2017-2018. Though, women are severely lagging behind men.
  • The rate was 77.2 for males and 32.8 for females in 2021-22, with no improvement in this disparity over the years.
  • Lower participation is due to social factors, educational qualifications and gender discrimination in terms of wages and opportunities in the workplace.
  • Population Growth- The population growth, already on a downward trend from 2.2% in 1971 to 1.1% in 2021, is expected to decline further to 0.58% in 2036.
  • In absolute figures, this translates into 1.2 billion people with 48.5% female population as per Census 2011 to an expected 1.5 billion in 2036 with a slight
  • Improvement in the female population share (48.8%).
  • Age of Sex Structure- India’s age and sex structure, as per which the population under 15 years of age is likely to decline and the population above 60 years is likely to increase by 2036.
  • Therefore, the population pyramid will experience a shift as the base of the pyramid in 2036 would narrow down, whereas the middle would be broadened.
  • The age and sex structure of a country’s population can affect gender issues in a variety of ways. Age structure impacting several aspects of societies is determined primarily by trends in fertility and mortality.
  • Access to Health Information and Services- Less access to resources and decision-making power, limitations on mobility, etc make access to health information and services more arduous for women and girls than men and boys.
  • Fertility Rate- The age-specific fertility rate for the 20-24 year and 25-29 years age group between 2016 and 2020 decreased from 135.4 and 166.0 to 113.6 and 139.6 respectively.
  • This is probably a function of economic independence by achieving proper education and securing a job.
  • The same indicator for the 35-39 years age group increased from 32.7 (2016) to 35.6 (2020).
  • The average age for marriage has improved marginally up from 22.1 years in 2017 to 22.7 years in 2020.

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