Mains Syllabus




Physical Geography :

1. Geomorphology : Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic
forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical
conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics;
Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of
geomorphic cycles and Land scape development; Denudation chronology; Channel
morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development; Applied Geomorphology;
Geomorphology, economic geology and environment.

2. Climatology : Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth;
Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds;
Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types
and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and
Trewar Tha’s classification of world climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change,
and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.

3. Oceanography : Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans;
Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves,
currents and tides; Marine resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs
coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.

4. Biogeography : Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil
erosion, Degrada-tion and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants
and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry,
agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.

5. Environmental Geography : Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence
of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and
imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation,
management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental
policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and
Human Geography :

1. Perspectives in Human Geography : Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis;
Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis;
Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and
secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development indix.

2. Economic Geography : World economic development: measurement and problems; World
resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture:
typology of agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutritions
problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location
patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade.

3. Population and Settlement Geography : Growth and distribution of world population;
Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Concepts of
over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and
policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital.
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements;
Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city and rank-size
rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe;
Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.

4. Regional Planning : Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation;
Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Regional development strategies;
Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.

5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography : System analysis in Human geography;
Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of
Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location;
Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and
Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.



Physical Setting : Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries; Structure and
relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian
monsoons and rainfall patterns; Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and
droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation, Soil types and their distributions.

2. Resources : Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine
resources, Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.

3. Agriculture : Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors; land
holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity,
agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green
revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming;
Livestock resources and white revolution; Aqua-culture; Sericulture, Agriculture and
poultry; Agricultural regionalisation; Agro-climatic zones; Agro-ecological regions.

4. Industry : Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel,
aluminium, fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and
ago-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector underkings;
Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special
Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism.

5. Transport, Communication and Trade : Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline
net works and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of
ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy;Export processing zones;
Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on
economy and society; Indian space programme.

6. Cultural Setting : Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial linguistic and ethnic
diversities; religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; Cultural
regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes:
sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration
(inter-regional, interaregional and international) and associated problems; Population
problems and policies; Health indicators.

7. Settlements : Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments;
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and
metropolitan regions; Urban sprawl; Slums and asssociated problems; Town planning;
Problems of urbanisation and remedies.

8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year
Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised
planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward
area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development; Multi-level planning; Regional
planning and development of island territories.

9. Political Aspects : Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation;
Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; International
boundary of India and related issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs;
Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.

10. Contemporary Issues : Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes,
Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues related to environmental pollution;
Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and
environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental
degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and
industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable
growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and
Indian economy



1. Sources
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
Archaeological sources :
Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments.
Literary sources:
Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional
languages, religious literature.
Foreign account: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2. Pre-history and Proto-history :
Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture
(neolithic and chalcolithic).

3. Indus Valley Civilization :
Origin, date, extent, characteristics-decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

4. Megalithic Cultures :

Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life,
Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5. Aryans and Vedic Period :
Expansions of Aryans in India :
Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the
later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of
Monarchy and Varna system.

6. Period of Mahajanapadas :
Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade
routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddism; Rise of
Magadha and Nandas.
Iranian and Mecedonian invasions and their impact.

7. Mauryan Empire :
Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept
of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration, Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External
contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.
Disintegration of the empire; sungas and Kanvas.

8. Post-Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas) :
Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions,
Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:
Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, Economy, land
grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture;
Art and architecture.

10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:
Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational
institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and

11. Regional States during Gupta Era:
The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds,
Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakit movement, Shankaracharya;
Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras,
Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chaluky as of
Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; Local Government; Growth of art
and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and
literature, economy and society.

12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:
Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical
thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:
— Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the peninsula, origin and the
rise of Rajputs.
— The Cholas: administration, village economy and society “Indian Feudalism”.
— Agrarian economy and urban settlements.
— Trade and commerce.
— Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order.
— Condition of women.
— Indian science and technology.

14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
— Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and
— Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam
and its arrival in India, Sufism.
— Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly
developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India.
— Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting.

15. The Thirteenth Century:
— Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian
— Economic, Social and cultural consequences.
— Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans.
— Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.

16. The Fourteenth Century:
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
— “The Khalji Revolution”.
— Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measure.
— Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad
— Firuz Tugluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works,
decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account.

17.Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:
— Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious
classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement.
— Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literaute in
the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting,
evolution of a composite culture.
— Economy: Agricultural Production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural
production, trade and commerce.

18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century-Political Developments and Economy:
— Rise of Provincial Dynasties : Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat.
— Malwa, Bahmanids.
— The Vijayanagara Empire.
— Lodis.
— Mughal Empire, first phase : Babur, Humayun.
— The Sur Empire : Sher Shah’s administration.
— Portuguese colonial enterprise, Bhakti and Sufi Movements.

19. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century- Society and culture:
— Regional cultures specificities.
— Literary traditions.
— Provincial architectural.
— Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.

20. Akbar:
— Conquests and consolidation of empire.
— Establishment of jagir and mansab systems.
— Rajput policy.
— Evolution of religious and social outlook. Theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy.
— Court patronage of art and technology.

21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
— Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
— The Empire and the Zamindars.
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
— Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
— Nature of the Mughal State.
— Late Seventeenth Century crisis and the revolts.
— The Ahom kingdom.
— Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22. Economy and society, in the 16th and 17th Centuries:
— Population Agricultural and craft production.
— Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade
— Indian mercantile classes. Banking, insurance and credit systems.
— Conditions of peasants, Condition of Women.
— Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth.

23. Culture during Mughal Empire:
— Persian histories and other literature.
— Hindi and religious literatures.
— Mughal architecture.
— Mughal painting.
— Provincial architecture and painting.
— Classical music.
— Science and technology.

24. The Eighteenth Century:
— Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire.
— The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh.
— Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas.
— The Maratha fiscal and financial system.
— Emergence of Afghan power Battle of Panipat, 1761.
— State of, political, cultural and economic, on eve of the British conquest.



1. European Penetration into India:
The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French
East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal-The conflict
between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey;
Significance of Plassey. 

2. British Expansion in India:
Bengal-Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three
Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.

3. Early Structure of the British Raj:
The Early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct contol; The Regulating Act (1773);
The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The Voice of free trade and the changing
character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement;
Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of
agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional
crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication
network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior;
European business enterprise and its limitations.

5. Social and Cultural Developments:
The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The
introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion;
The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of Science; Christian missionary activities
in India.

6. Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and Other Areas:
Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar;
The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India
including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance
to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism-the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

7. Indian Response to British Rule:
Peasant movement and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur
Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the
Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda
Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 —Origin, character, casuses of failure, the
consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the
peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of
the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress;
Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress
leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi
Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The
beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt
Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from
the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience
Movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The
Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements;
Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian
politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission;
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.

10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.

11. Other strands in the National Movement.
The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P. the Madras Presidency, Outside

The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress
Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the
politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.

13. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964);
The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality;
Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.

14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward Castes and Tribes in post-colonial electoral politics;
Dalit movements.

15. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural
reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial India; Progress of Science.

16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
(i) Major Ideas of Enlightenment : Kant, Rousseau.
(ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies.
(iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

17. Origins of Modern Politics :
(i) European States System.
(ii) American Revolution and the Constitution.
(iii) French Revolution and Aftermath, 1789-1815.
(iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.
(v) British Democratic politics, 1815-1850 : Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

18. Industrialization :
(i) English Industrial Revolution : Causes and Impact on Society.
(ii) Industrialization in other countries : USA, Germany, Russia, Japan.
(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.

19. Nation-State System :
(i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century.
(ii) Nationalism : State-building in Germany and Italy.
(iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the World.

20. Imperialism and Colonialism :
(i) South and South-East Asia.
(ii) Latin America and South Africa.
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
(iii) Australia.
(iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution :
(i) 19th Century European revolutions.
(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921.
(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949.

22. World Wars :
(i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars : Societal implications.
(ii) World War I : Causes and Consequences.
(iii) World War II : Causes and Consequences.

23. The World after World War II:
(i) Emergence of Two power blocs.
(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment.
(iii) UNO and the global disputes.

24 . Liberation from Colonial Rule :
(i) Latin America-Bolivar.
(ii) Arab World-Egypt.
(iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy.
(iv)South-East Asia-Vietnam.

25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment :
(i) Factors constraining Development ; Latin America, Africa.

26. Unification of Europe :
(i) Post War Foundations ; NATO and European Community.
(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
(iii) European Union.

27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World :

(i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet Communism and Soviet Union, 1985-1991.
(ii) Political Changes in East Europe 1989-2001.
(iii) End of the Cold War and US Ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.



Constitutional and administrative Law :

1. Constitution and Constitutionalism:The distinctive features of the Constitution.

Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.

2. Fundamental Rights—Public interest litigation; Legal Aid; Legal services authority.

3. Relationship between Fundamental rights, Directive principles and Fundamental duties.

4. Constitutional Position of the President and relation with the Council of Ministers.

5. Governor and his powers.

6. Supreme Court and the High Courts:

(a) Appointments and transfer.

(b) Powers, functions and jurisdiction.

7. Centre, States and local bodies:
(a) Distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the States.
(b) Local Bodies.
(c)Administrative relationship among Union, State and Local Bodies.
(d) Eminent domain-State property-common property-community property.

8. Legislative powers, privileges and immunities.

9. Services under the Union and the States:

(a) Recruitment and conditions of services;Constitutional safeguards; Administrative

(b) Union Public Service Commission and StatePublic Service Commissions—Power


(c)Election Commission—Power and functions.

10. Emergency provisions.

11. Amendment of the Constitution.
12. Principle of Natural Justice—Emerging trends and judicial approach.
13. Delegated legislation and its constitutionality.
14. Separation of powers and constitutional governance.
15. Judicial review of administrative action.
16. Ombudsman: Lokayukta, Lokpal etc.
International Law :
1. Nature and Definition of International Law.
2. Relationship between International Law and Municipal Law.
3. State Recognition and State Succession.
4. Law of the sea: Inland Waters,Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, Continental Shelf,
Economic Zone and High Seas.
5. Individuals: Nationality, statelessness; Human Rights and procedures available for
their enforcement.
6. Territorial jurisdiction of States, Extradition and Asylum.
7. Treaties : Formation, application, termination and reservation.
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
8. United Nations : Its principal organs, powers and functions and reform.
9. Peaceful settlement of disputes—different modes.
10. Lawful recourse to force : aggressions, self-defence, intervention.
11. Fundamental principles of international humanitarian law—International conventions
and contemporary developments.
12. Legality of the use of nuclear weapons; ban on testing of nuclear weapons; Nuclear nonproliferation treaty, CTST.
13. International Terrorism, State sponsored terrorism, Hijacking, International Criminal
14. New International Economic Order and Monetary Law : WTO, TRIPS, GATT, IMF, World
15. Protection and Improvement of the Human Environment : International Efforts.



Law of Crimes :—
1. General principles of Criminal liability : mens rea and actus reus, mens rea in statutory
2. Kinds of punishment and emerging trends as to abolition of capital punishment.
3. Preparations and criminal attempt.
4. General exceptions.
5. Joint and constructive liability.
6. Abetment.
7. Criminal conspiracy.
8. Offences against the State.
9. Offences against public tranquility.
10. Offences against human body.
11. Offences against property.
12. Offences against women.
13. Defamation.
14. Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.
15. Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 and subsequent legislative developments.
16. Plea bargaining.
Law of Torts
1. Nature and definition.
2. Liability based upon fault and strict liability; Absolute liability.
3. Vicarious liability including State Liability.
4. General defences.
5. Joint tort fessors.
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
6. Remedies.
7. Negligence.
8. Defamation.
9. Nuisance.
10. Conspiracy.
11. False imprisonment.
12. Malicious prosecution.
13. Consumer Protection Act, 1986.
Law of Contracts and Mercantile Law
1. Nature and formation of contract/E-contract.
2. Factors vitiating free consent.
3. Void, voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements.
4. Performance and discharge of contracts.
5. Quasi-contracts.
6. Consequences of breach of contract.
7. Contract of indemnity, guarantee and insurance.
8. Contract of agency.
9. Sale of goods and hire purchase.
10. Formation and dissolution of partnership.
11. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.
12. Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996.
13. Standard form contracts.
Contemporary Legal Developments
1. Public Interest Litigation.
2. Intellectual property rights—Concept, types/prospects.
3. Information Technology Law including Cyber Laws—Concept, purpose/prospects.
4. Competition Law—Concept, purpose/prospects.
5. Alternate Dispute Resolution—Concept, types/prospects.
6. Major statutes concerning environmental law.
7. Right to Information Act.
8. Trial by media.



Answers must be written in Punjabi in Gurumukhi script
Section A
(a) Origin of Punjabi Language; different stages of development and recent development in
Punjabi Language; characteristics of Punjabi phonology and the study of its tones;
classification of vowels and consonants.
(b) Punjabi morphology; the number-gender system (animate and inanimate), prefixes, affixes
and different categories of Post positions; Punjabi word formation; Tatsam. Tad Bhav. forms;
Sentence structure, the notion of subject and object in Punjabi; Noun and verb phrases.
(c) Language and dialect : the notions of dialect and idiolect: major dialects of Punjabi : Pothohari,
Majhi, Doabi, Malwai, Paudhi; the validity of speech variation on the basis of social
stratification, the distinctive features of various dialects with special reference to tones
Language and script; origin and development of Gurumukhi; Suitability of Gurumukhi for
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
(d) Classical background : Nath Jogi Sahit.
Medieval Literature : Gurmat, Suti, Kissa and Var : janamsakhis.
Section B
(a) Modern trends Mystic, romantic, progressive and neomystic (Vir Singh, Puran Singh, Mohan
Singh, Amrita Pritam, Bawa Balwant, Pritam Singh Safeer, J. S. Neki).
Experimentalist (Jasbir Singh Ahluwalia, Ravinder Ravi, Ajaib Kamal).
Aesthetes (Harbhajan Singh, Tara Singh). Neo-progressive (Pash, Jagtar,
(b) Folk Literature Folk songs, Folk tales, Riddles, Proverbs.
Epic (Vir Singh, Avtar Singh Azad, Mohan Singh).
Lyric (Gurus, Sufis and Modern Lyricists-Mohan Singh, Amrita Pritam, Shiv Kumar,
Harbhajan Singh).
(c) Drama (I.C. Nanda, Harcharan Singh, Balwant Gargi, S.S. Sekhon, Charan Das
Novel (Vir Singh, Nanak Singh, Jaswant Singh Kanwal, K.S. Duggal, Sukhbir, Gurdial
Singh, Dalip Kaur Tiwana, Swaran Chandan).
Short Story (Sujan Singh, K. S. Virk, Prem Parkash, Waryam Sandhu).
(d) Socio-cultural Sanskrit, Persian and Western.
Literary influences;
Essay (Puran Singh, Teja Singh, Gurbaksh Singh).
Literary Criticism (S.S. Sekhon, Attar Singh, Kishan Singh, Harbhajan Singh, Najam Hussain



Answers must be written in Punjabi in Gurumukhi script
This paper will require first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test
the candidate’s critical ability.
Section A
(a) Sheikh Farid The complete Bani as includedin the Adi Granth.
(b) Guru Nanak Japu Ji. Baramah. Asa di Var.
(c) Bulleh Shah Kafian
(d) Waris Shah Heer
Section B
(a) Shah Mohammad Jangnama (Jang Singhante Firangian)
Dhani Ram Chatrik Chandan Vari
(Poet) Sufi Khana
Nawan Jahan
(b) Nanak Singh Chitta Lahu
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
(Novelist) Pavittar Papi
Ek Mian Do Talwaran
(c) Gurbaksh Singh Zindagi-di-Ras
(Essayist) Nawan Shivala
Merian Abhul Yadaan.
Balraj Sahni Mera Roosi Safarnama
(Travelogue) Mera Pakistani Safarnama
(d) Balwant Gargi Loha Kutt
(Dramatist) Dhuni-di-Agg
Sultan Razia
Sant Singh Sekhon Sahityarth
(Critic) Parsidh Punjabi Kavi
Punjabi Kav Shiromani.



There will be three questions as indicated in the Question Paper which must be answered in
Sanskrit. The Remaining questions must be answered either in Sanskrit or in the medium of
examination opted by the candidate.
Section A
1. Significant features of the grammar, with particular stress on Sanjna, Sandhi, Karaka, Samasa,
Kartari and Karmani vacyas (voice usages) (to be answered in Sanskrit).
2.(a) Main characteristics of Vedic Sanskrit language
(b) Prominent feature of classical Sanskrit language
(c) Contribution of Sanskrit to linguistic studies
3. General Knowledge of :—
(a) Literary history of Sanskrit
(b) Principal trends of literary criticism
(c) Ramayana
(d) Mahabharata
(e) The origin and development of literary geners of :
Rupaka (drama)
Muktaka Kavya.
Section B
4. Essential of Indian Culture with stress on :
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
(a) Purusãrthas
(b) Samskãras
(c) Varnãsramavyavasthã
(d) Arts and fine arts
(e) Technical Sciences.
5. Trends of Indian Philosophy
(a) Mïmansã
(b) Vedãnta
(c) Nyaya
(d) Vaisesika
(e) Sãnkhya
(f) Yoga
(g) Bauddha
(h) Jaina
(i) Carvãka
6. Short Essay (in Sanskrit)
7. Unseen passage with the questions (to be answered in Sanskrit).



Question from Group 4 is to be answered in Sanskrit only. Questions from Groups 1, 2 and 3
are to be answered either in Sanskrit or in the medium opted by the candidate.
Section A
General study of the following groups :—
Group 1 (a) Raghuvamsam—Kalidasa
(b) Kumarasambhavam—Kalidasa
(c) Kiratarjuniyam—Bharavi
(d) Sisupalavadham—Magha
(e) Naisadhiyacaritam—Sriharsa
(f) Kadambari—Banabhatta
(g) Dasakumaracaritam—Dandin
(h) Sivarajyodayam—S.B. Varnekar
Group 2 (a) Isãvãsyopanisad
(b) Bhagavadgitã
(c) Sundarakanda of Valmiki’s
(d) Arthasastra of Kautilya
Group 3 (a) Svapanavasavadattam—Bhasa
(b) Abhijnanasakuntalam—Kalidasa
Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
(c) Mricchakatikam—Sudraka
(d) Mudraraksasam—Visakhadatta
(e) Uttararamacaritam—Bhavbhuti
(f) Ratnavali—Sriharshavardhana
(g) Venisamharam—Bhattanarayana
Group 4 Short notes in Sanskrit on the following :—
(a) Meghadutam—Kalidasa
(b) Nitisatakam—Bhartrhari
(c) Pancatantra—
(d) Rajatarangini—Kalhana
(e) Harsacaritam—Banabhatta
(f) Amarukasatakam—Amaruka
(g) Gitagovindam—Jayadeva.
Section B
This section will require first hand reading of the following selected texts :— (Questions from
Groups 1 & 2 are to be answered in Sanskrit only) Questions from Groups 3 and 4 are to be
answered either in Sanskrit or in the Medium opted by the candidate.
Group 1 (a) Raghuvamsam—CantoI, Verses 1 to 10
(b) Kumarasambhavam—Canto I, Verses1 to 10
(c) Kiratarjuniyaue—Canto I, Verses 1 to 10
Group 2 (a) Isavasyopanisad—Verses—1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 15 and 18
(b) Bhagavatgita II Chapter Verses13 to 25
(c) Sundarakandam of Valmiki Canto15, Verses 15 to 30 (Geeta Press
Group 3 (a) Meghadutam—Verses 1 to 10
(b) Nitisatakam—Verses 1 to 10 (Edited by D.D. Kosambi Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
(c) Kadambari—Sukanasopadesa (only)
Group 4 (a) Svapnavasavadattam Act VI
(b) Abhijnansakuntalam Act IV Verses 15 to 30 (M.R. Kale Edition)
(c) Uttararamacaritam Act I Verses 31 to 47 (M.R. Kale Edition).