Nano Fertilisers

Why in News?

  • Recently, the Department of Fertilisers conducted an audit which displayed a variation of 25-50% in the reduction of nitrogen use after the application of nano urea.
  • The use of nano urea can support the government save around USD 3 billion (approx. Rs 24,687 crore) in subsidy bills annually and decrease India’s dependence on urea imports.

About Nano Fertilisers-

  • Nano fertilisers are highly efficient types of fertilisers that give nutrients like nitrogen to crops through fine granules.
  • Nitrogen is an indispensable macronutrient for plant functions, and urea is one of the most concentrated nitrogenous fertilisers.
  • Nano Urea Liquid- In 2022, Nano urea liquid was developed by Indian Farmers and Fertiliser Cooperative (IFFCO) to supplant conventional urea and decrease its requirement by 50%.
  • The government has heavily encouraged the use of nano fertilisers since its development.


  • Reduce Losses- Nano fertilisers exploit the nanoscale porous domains on plant surfaces to deliver nutrients, enhance the effectiveness of nitrogen delivery, and lower losses to the environment.
  • Increase Farmers’ Income- It is easy on the pocket of farmers and will be effective in raising farmers’ income. It will also significantly lower the cost of logistics and warehousing.
  • A small bottle of 500 millilitres nano urea spray is said to be a substitute for a full bag of 45 kilogramme urea.
  • Making Crops Stronger- It will also lower the excess use of Urea application in the soil and will make the crops stronger, healthier and secure them from lodging effect.
  • Lodging is the bending over of the stems near ground level of grain crops, which makes them very difficult to harvest, and can dramatically decrease yield.


  • Production Cost- The cost of producing Nano-fertilizers is higher than conventional fertilizers due to the advanced technology and production methods used.
  • This has made them expensive for small farmers and resulted in limited access to this technology.
  • Quality Control- The production of Nano-fertilizers needs strict quality control measures to ensure their effectiveness and safety.
  • Though, the lack of standardized regulations for their production and distribution has resulted in poor quality control and inconsistent results.
  • Environmental Concerns- There are many concerns about the potential environmental impact of nano-fertilizers, like their long-term effects on soil health, water quality, and ecosystem balance.
  • These concerns must be addressed through adequate testing and regulation to ensure their sustainable use.

About Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited-

  • IFFCO is one of India’s biggest co-operative societies which is wholly owned by Indian Cooperatives.
  • It was established in 1967 with just 57 cooperatives, at present it is an amalgamation of over 36,000 Indian Cooperatives with diversified business interests ranging from General Insurance to Rural Telecom apart from its core business of manufacturing and selling fertilisers.
  • Objective-
  • To enable Indian farmers to thrive through timely supply of reliable, high quality agricultural inputs and services in an environmentally sustainable manner and to undertake other activities to enhance their welfare.


  • Nano fertilisers have the potential to enhance crop yields, lower input costs for farmers, and save the government on subsidy bills and urea imports. Though, long-term effects on the nutritional quality, bio-safety, efficacy, and reliability needs further research and thorough audit of field trials to establish the effectiveness and safety of using nano fertilisers on crops.

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