Global Status of Multi-Hazard Early Warning Systems: Target G

Why in News?

  • Recently, the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) published a report named as Global Status of Multi-Hazard Early Warning Systems- Target G, which reveals that half of the countries globally are not protected by Multi-Hazard Early Warning Systems (MHEWS).
  • The report has been released to mark the International Day for Disaster Risk Reduction on 13th October.
  • The analysis was made with data from the targets mentioned in The Sendai Framework (2015-2030). The framework is an international blueprint for disaster risk reduction and prevention.
  • Of the 07 targets in the framework, Target G seeks to “substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to the people by 2030.

About Early Warning Systems-

  • Early warning systems are means to decrease harm to people and damage to assets ahead of impending hazards, and stormstsunamisdroughts, and heat-waves, etc.
  • Multi-hazard early warning systems address various hazards that may happen alone, simultaneously or cascadingly.
  • A number of systems only cover one type of hazard, such as floods or cyclones.

Key Findings-

  • Failure at Investment- The international community is failing to invest in protecting the lives and livelihoods of those on the front line.
  • Those who have done the minimum to cause the climate crisis are paying the highest price.
  • Least developed countries (LDCs), Small Island Developing States (SIDS), and countries in Africa, need the most investment to increase early warning coverage and sufficiently protect themselves against disasters.
  • Pakistan is experiencing its worst recorded climate disaster, with approx. 1,700 lives lost. Despite this carnage, the death toll would have been much higher if not for early warning systems.
  • Significant Gaps- Globally only half of the countries have MHEWS.
  • The Number of registered disasters has increased five times, driven in part by human-induced climate change and more extreme weather. This trend is expected to continue.
  • Less than half of the LDCs and only one-third of SIDSs have a multi-hazard early warning system.
  • Humanity is in the Danger Zone- As increasing greenhouse gas emissions are supercharging extreme weather events across the planet, climate disasters are hurting countries and economies badly.
  • Increasing calamities are costing lives and hundreds of billions of dollars in loss and damage.
  • Three times more people are displaced by climate disasters than war and half of humanity is already in the danger zone.

Recommendations-

  • Recommended all countries to invest in early warning systems.
  • As climate change causes more frequently, extreme, and unpredictable weather events, investment in early warning systems that target multiple hazards is more top priority than ever.
  • This is because of the need to warn not only against the initial impact of disasters, but also second and third-order effects. Examples involve soil liquefaction following an earthquake or a landslide and disease outbreaks after heavy rainfall.

India’s initiatives in Managing Disaster-

  • Establishment of National Disaster Reaction Force (NDRF)- India has increasingly mitigated and responded to all types of disasters, along with the establishment of its National Disaster Reaction Force, the world’s largest rapid reaction force dedicated to disaster response.
  • India’s Role as a Foreign Disaster Relief- India’s foreign humanitarian assistance has included its military assets, mainly deploying naval ships or aircraft to supply relief.
  • In line with its diplomatic policy of “Neighbourhood First,” various recipient countries have been in the region of South and Southeast Asia.
  • Contribution to Regional Disaster Preparedness- Within the context of the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC), India has hosted DM Exercises that permit NDRF to demonstrate for counterparts from partner states the techniques developed to respond to many disasters.
  • Other NDRF and Indian Armed Forces exercises have brought India’s first responders into contact with those from states in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO).
  • Managing Climate Change related Disaster- India has approved the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the Sustainable Development Goals (2015-2030), and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, all of which make clear the connections among DRR, Climate Change Adaptation, and sustainable development.

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